By Teresa Sullivan
From PHN Issue 21, Summer 2014
“We, as women living with HIV, envision a life free from violence, coercion, and discrimination for all people. We, as women living with HIV, demand an end to the many different forms of violence faced by all women, including physical, emotional, psychological, religious, sexual, institutional, and economic violence, and the trauma that violence leaves in its wake.” —Positive Women’s Network, USA
When we hear the word “violence,” the first thing we visualize is the physical abuse of someone. And women living with HIV are indeed vulnerable to physical violence because of stigma and ignorance. This reality was made brutally clear yet again a few weeks ago with the heartbreaking murder of Elisha Henson, who was killed in Texas because of her HIV status. A survey conducted by the Positive Women’s Network, USA (PWN-USA) last year found that 72% of women living with HIV who responded were survivors of intimate partner violence. However, for PWN-USA, ending violence against women includes ending a spectrum of human rights violations, including but not limited to physical violence, that women have faced for many generations throughout history.
For example, let’s journey for a moment through the 1940s and 1950s in the United States. Many women of this time faced the economic injustice of working for lower wages on factory production lines than the men they replaced who’d gone off to World War II. In doing this work, these women challenged the traditional ideas that a woman’s place was in the home attending to the needs of her husband. But this didn’t translate to respect, equality—or physical safety. Within the home, many women not only experienced physical abuse by their husbands—“the physical beat down”—but had to make unhealthy choices to stay in relationships that were abusive, emotionally and otherwise, to keep social status, economic stability or shelter to raise their children. Women often had to depend on their husband’s income for their basic needs, such as food and clothing.
Many women also were not able to refuse to have sex with their husbands when they didn’t want to. Women’s reproductive rights—the right to have children, the right not to have children, access to safe abortions—were unheard of in this era. Women’s reproductive rights are human rights; viewed through a gender and human-rights lens, we can see that violation of these rights is a form of violence against women.
The psychological abuse that women faced in the era I described often caused them emotional and psychological trauma. As a woman who grew up in the 1960s, I personally experienced the trauma that was transferred from the women of the 1940s and 1950s to my generation of women of the 1960s and 1970s. Learning and working from that trauma sparked a second wave of the feminist movement. Feminist and other movements continue to be connected to the social justice movement I am part of to this day: the movement to end violence against all women.
In the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s, many women transformed from being passive to aggressively fighting for their human rights. The movement originally focused on dismantling workplace inequality, such as denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity, and freedom from sexual harassment and sexual violence. For some, it was just the right to have control over their own bodies. Most of these issues continue to be central to women’s justice movements today.
While the economic structure in the United States blocks opportunities for many people, women still face higher hurdles to jump over to make it in today’s world. When it comes to healthcare for women who are working or seeking to gain employment with quality healthcare, useful and widely available options are still rare. Women are likely to be the ones who care for their elderly parents or family members with special needs. Their healthcare needs are costly and invisible. Even with the Affordable Care Act, I still see our nation falling short when it comes to upholding the right to quality, affordable, and holistic healthcare for all women. This can stop women from entering the workforce, especially when a woman and her family are dealing with health concerns. Women of today’s generation often feel encouraged to stay in poverty and stay sick in order to get public health benefits, since the prospect of getting healthcare and making a livable wage at a job can be bleak.
Experiences across the spectrum of violence against women—from economic to physical and sexual violence and beyond—continue to increase a woman’s susceptibility to becoming HIV positive. In circumstances where women are not able to receive the necessary means to survive and take care of themselves and their families, preventing HIV becomes a matter for an ideal world.
If our society truly wants to end violence against all women, we must stop putting a Band-Aid on the issues that women face—and do some sincere surgery on our culture.
Some of PWN-USA’s solutions for ending violence against all women:
1. Repeal all laws that criminalize HIV, and provide sensitivity trainings to law enforcement, health care workers, violence specialists, and child protection services.
2. Build care providers’ skills to assess and address signs of violence and trauma.
3. Institute comprehensive primary care programs that are informed about trauma in sites serving women and HIV-positive women.
If you have internet access, you can read more of PWN-USA’s solutions for ending violence against all women at http://pwnusa.wordpress.com/policy-agenda/violence-against-women/factsheet/
Teresa Sullivan is a member of PWN-USA’s Board of Directors.